The garage is definitely outside, but the basement or crawlspace should be in.

An attic might be better outside unless the heating, cooling and air distribution system is up there, then it, too should be inside.

Right after keeping water out of a home comes keeping out the air. A continuous air-tight boundary between inside and out is needed before attempting to “condition’ the indoors.

This “air barrier” can be complicated by porches, garages, outdoor storage areas, or the mere complexity of geometry.

But it must successfully connect roof, wall and foundation in a durably air tight manner.

An overall depiction of the air barrier might be one of the most important elements of the construction documents, along with details of how it is to be achieved, WITH verification and testing criteria written into the specifications.

Clearly defining air and thermal boundaries
Historic basement brought “inside”
Un-vented, insulated crawlspace
Un-vented attic when HVAC equipment is present